Nicotine is an agonist at acetylcholinergic nicotinic receptors.This 7 page paper explores the topic of adolescent use of alcohol sociologically.
drug addiction research paper » #1 - Free Online EssaysThus, physiological dependence and withdrawal promote drug-taking behaviors, as people continue to take the drug, at least partially, to avoid the terrible effects of withdrawal.Most of their analgesic effects are due to their presynaptic inhibition of pain-producing neurotransmitter release.This essay will analyze factors that makes drug addiction to be more of a medically oriented problem that a psychological problem.
Symptoms resulting from drug addiction depend on the type of drug that a person consumes.Each type of neurotransmitter binds to a specific set of receptors that typically bear their own name (e.g., dopamine to dopaminergic receptors).After drinking coffee daily for a few weeks, it may take two or three cups of caffeinated coffee to feel that same excitation.Addiction depends on an individual physiology and not exposure to drugs or formation of behavior.Decreased activity in reward brain areas (e.g., dopaminergic mesolimbic system) that occurs during nicotine withdrawal may be responsible for the motivation of cravings, relapse, and continued smoking.Drug addiction, specifically heroin addiction, is a very significant problem throughout the world and touches the lives of many.
According to various researches conducted, it has been suggested that, an approach referred to as cultural congruency should always be adopted when a counselor and the patient shares a similar ethnic background.Various drugs bind to receptor sites with different strengths, and may selectively bind to just one or a few receptor subtypes or nonselectively bind to multiple receptor subtypes.Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper.Alcohol is a powerful drug that causes physical, social, and psychological effects.In this paper I. and family therapy currently have the most research.
Addiction Research and Drug AddictionAcute tolerance is evident when, during a single administration, the measured effect is stronger on the ascending portion of the blood concentration curve than at the same concentration on the descending portion of the curve.This is for purposes of improving public health intervention outcomes and treatment.
Smokers easily avoid nicotine toxicity by controlling the depth and rate of smoke inhalation.Peak blood levels of THC occur within 10 minutes of the beginning of smoking, and detectable blood levels continue for 12 hours after a single cigarette.Some effects of alcohol show acute tolerance in humans and rats.Often THC is ingested via hand-rolled marijuana cigarettes called joints or reefers, but it is also consumed in cookies and brownies.Respiration becomes slow, shallow, and irregular, at therapeutic doses, and breathing may stop with high doses.When more metabolism than absorption is occurring, the concentration of drug in the blood begins to decline, depicted as the descending portion of the blood concentration.
Drugs that bind to only a very specific receptor subtype or have greatly enhanced affinities for very specific subtypes of receptors will have fewer side effects as compared to drugs that bind less discriminately to an entire set of receptors.Read this American History Research Paper and over 87,000 other research documents.
Drugs: Essay Organization – Writefix.comFor example, when Siegel (1975) gave rats morphine (US), they showed reduced sensitivity (UR analgesia) to heat applied to their paws, but with repetitive administrations of morphine in the presence of the same environmental cues (CS), the rats showed increased sensitivity (CR hyperalgesia) to those environmental cues.For thousands of years, the natives of the South American Andes have increased endurance and stamina as they traveled the harsh mountain terrain by chewing the leaves of the coca plant.High doses of marijuana produce panic and anxiety, and extremely high doses produce additional disorientation, delusions, and hallucinations.Drugs have made a tremendous impact on American society over the past thirty to forty years, yet many Americans are often.
The commonality among hallucinogens (psychedelic drugs) is their ability to cause users to disconnect from reality and hallucinate.Orally consumed caffeine is absorbed in the stomach and mostly intestines, with peak blood levels occurring at 30 to 60 minutes.A second drug can have an additive effect, a synergistic effect (a greater effect than would be expected when just adding the two drugs), or an antagonistic effect (the second drug reduces or blocks the effect of the target drug).Students who use our service are responsible for writing their own papersand citing The Paper Store as a source when doing so.
Physiological dependence on amphetamines is evident from the withdrawal symptoms of ravenous hunger, fatigue, lethargy, depression, and suicidal tendencies.Do Research Papers Have Opinions Essay On Customer Satisfaction.A common target site of psychoactive drugs is the postsynaptic receptors where neurotransmitters bind.Many of the toxic chemical compounds, other than nicotine, in tobacco products are the source of serious health problems (e.g., emphysema, chronic lung disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease) and death.When activated by adenosine, receptors located on presynaptic terminals inhibit spontaneous and stimulated neurotransmitter release.The main symptom of drug addiction is increased craving for the substance.Ethanol dose dependently inhibits NMDA-type glutamate receptors (reduces postsynaptic excitation) and enhances inhibition produced by GABAA receptor-mediated influx of chloride ions (increases postsynaptic inhibition).
The other 5 percent is excreted unchanged mostly through breath (hence the use of Breathalyzers to estimate alcohol concentration).Often drugs work by either mimicking or blocking the actions of one or more neurotransmitters in the CNS.Cocaine blocks presynaptic reuptake transporters for dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.How to Write a Research Paper on Drug Use and Abuse Project.In other words, to determine dependence requires one to stop taking the drug.